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02 February 2024 - Daily Current Affairs

1. Default Bail

About Default Bail

1) Default bail is also known as statutory bail. It is a type of bail which is given to an accused detained in custody, when the police fails to complete the investigation and file the charge sheet within the time frame mentioned under the law.


2) The time frame for completing the investigation of offences under the IPC, and for filing of the charge sheet, varies depending on the gravity of the offence.


Why in News: -The Supreme Court in Wadhawani brothers multi-crore bank loan scam case, held that an accused can not seek default bail on the grounds that the probe is pending against other co-accused. In cases where there are multiple accused, the default bail can only be sought by an individual if the investigation/probe is pending against that particular individual.


The Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) provides for three kinds of bail:-


Section 438- Anticipatory Bail


Section 439 – Regular bail


Section 167(2) – Default/statutory bail.


Different types of bail

1. Regular Bail- This is granted to accused individuals who are already in legal custody or jail. It allows the individual to be released from custody by giving a bond, either with or without sureties, under section 437 and section 439 of the CrPC.

2. Interim Bail- This is bail which is provided for a short period of time. It is provided to the accused person before the actual bail hearing or anticipatory bail.

3. Anticipatory Bail- This is defined under section 438 of CrPC. It is to be granted to those individuals who are apprehending arrest.

4. Medical Bail- Granted to individuals based on medical grounds, such as life-threatening disease.


Important judgements regarding bail

1) Ritu Chhabaria judgment– The Supreme court held that “the right of default bail under Section 167(2) of the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) is not merely a statutory right, but a fundamental right that flows from Article 21 of the Constitution”.

2) Jasbir Singh vs National Investigating Agency (2023) judgement– The Supreme Court held that an accused has no right to ask for default bail by claiming that the charge sheet is incomplete (although it is filed on time) for lack of sanction under Section 167(2) of the Code of Criminal Procedure.


2. Vyasji ka tehkhana

The District Court of Varanasi has given permission to perform puja in the basement named 'Vyasji Ka Tahkhana' located in the Gyanvapi Masjid Complex.

  • Vyasji ka tehkhana – It is 1 of the 4 basements of Gyanvapi Mosque Complex in Varansi.

  • Historically, members of Vyas family lived here who claim that it was given to them for worship and other religious rituals under the British rule in 1809.

  • Located in – Southern area of the Gyanvapi mosque’s complex, facing the Nandi statue of Kashi Vishwanath complex.



Source-This post on Pradhan Mantri Suryodaya Yojana is based on the article “Budget 2024 | One crore households to get 300 units free electricity every month through rooftop solarisation” published in “The Hindu” on 1st February 2024.

Why in the News?

In the Interim Budget 2024, the Finance Minister announced that one crore households will receive up to 300 units of free electricity monthly through rooftop solarization.This announcement is part of the Pradhan Mantri Suryodaya Yojana.

What is Pradhan Mantri Suryodaya Yojana?

Aspect

Details

About

1. This scheme was recently announced on the auspicious occasion of the consecration of the Ram Mandir in Ayodhya by the PM Modi.


2. It aims to install rooftop solar panels on one crore households.


3. Under this initiative, one crore households will receive up to 300 units of free electricity monthly.

Nodal agency

Rural Electrification Corporation (REC)

What is the Significance of this Scheme?

1) It is an attempt to achieve the goal of 40 GW rooftop solar capacity by March 2026.

2) The scheme will help households to save between Rs 15,000 and Rs 18,000 annually. It will also enable them to sell any surplus electricity to distribution companies (DISCOMs) as part of the net metering policy.

3) The net-metering policy permits rooftop solar power users to feed their excess power back into the grid, thereby reducing their electricity expenses.

Note– The mechanism of Net Metering was started in India in 2009. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) overseeing its implementation.


What other major announcements have been made for the energy sector in Budget 2024?

1) A ‘viability gap funding’ (VGF) will be provided for harnessing offshore wind energy potential for an initial capacity of one gigawatt. These are wind farms located in the sea.

Note– The government aims to install 500 GW of renewable energy by 2030. As part of this initiative, the government aims to achieve a 10 GW offshore wind capacity by 2030. Presently, India’s onshore wind energy capacity amounts to 44 GW.


What is the India’s current solar capacity?



Source-This post on ASHA workers has been created based on the article “ASHA, anganwadi staff get health cover” published in “The Hindu” on 1 February 2024.

Why in the news?

The Central government extended the benefits of its flagship health insurance scheme, Ayushman Bharat, to Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) workers and Anganwadi workers.

About Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA)?

Launched– In 2005-06 as part of the National Rural Health Mission, initially in rural areas. It was later extended to urban areas with the introduction of the National Urban Health Mission in 2013.


Selection

1) ASHA worker must be a woman resident of the village married/ widowed/ divorced, preferably in the age group of 25 to 45 years.2) ASHA must be chosen through a systematic process by involving various community groups, self-help groups, the Block Nodal officer, District Nodal officer, the village Health Committee and the Gram Sabha.


Role of ASHA

1)  ASHA will provide information to the community about nutrition, basic sanitation & hygienic practices.2) ASHA will counsel women on birth preparedness, importance of safe delivery, breast-feeding and complementary feeding and immunization.3) ASHA will mobilise the community and help them in accessing health and health related services available at the Anganwadi/sub-centre/primary health centres.

MISSION INDRADHANUSH-

Aim– to cover all children who are either unvaccinated, or are partially vaccinated against vaccine preventable diseases.Coverage-India’s Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) provide free vaccines against 12 life-threatening diseases. For example-Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio, Hepatitis B, Pneumonia and Meningitis due to Haemophilus Influenzae type b (Hib), Measles, Rubella, Japanese Encephalitis (JE) and Rotavirus diarrhoea. (Rubella, JE and Rotavirus vaccine in select states and districts).


5. Blue Economy


India’s recent Interim Budget stressed on environment-friendly development through the promotion of ‘blue economy’.

  • Blue economy – It simply refer to economic activities related to the sea and the coasts with the element of sustainability in it.

  • Definition

  • European Commission – It refers to all economic activities related to oceans, seas, coasts and it covers a wide range of interlinked established and emerging sectors.

  • World Bank – It is the sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods, and jobs while preserving the health of ocean ecosystem.

  • India’s Blue Economy – With long coastline, diversity in terms of fish & ocean produce, and multiple tourism opportunities, blue economy is highly significant.

  • It is a subset of national economy which comprises of 2 components

  • Ocean resources.

  • Human-made economic infrastructure in marine, maritime, and onshore coastal zones.

  • In 2022, a draft policy framework on India’s Blue Economy was 1st released.

Blue Economy

Blue Economy 2.0

  • Aim – To build resilience against the impacts of climate change while fostering sustainable growth in coastal regions.

  • Restoration and adaptation measures – Protecting the health of the oceans while carrying out economic activities.

  • AquacultureFarming of aquatic plants and animals.

  • Mariculture Rearing and harvesting marine creatures in salt water.

  • Integrated & multi-sectoral approach – Harnessing collective efforts to achieve sustainable development goals in coastal areas.

UPSC Daily Current Affairs


6. MQ-9B UAV - Daily current affairs

  • The U.S. formally notified of the possible sale of 31 MQ-9B high altitude long endurance armed Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to India recently.

MQ- Drones



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