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11 May 2024 - Daily Current Affairs

Prelims Practice Questions


1 Consider the following statements about Indian Ocean Dipole

  1. IOD is characterised by a difference in sea surface temperature between tropical Western Indian Ocean and tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean.

  2. A positive IOD event is often seen developing at times of an El Nino, while a negative IOD is associated with La Nina.

Choose the correct statements:

  • a) 1 only

  • b) 2 only

  • c) Both 1 and 2

  • d) Neither 1 nor 2



IOD is said to be positive when the western side of the Indian Ocean, near the Somalia coast, becomes warmer than the eastern Indian Ocean.

·       It is negative when the western Indian Ocean is coole


2. Consider the following statements

  1. Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting is an annual meeting of the original 12 parties to the Antarctic Treaty.

  2. The Antarctic Treaty, signed in 1959 establishes Antarctica as a region for peaceful purposes, scientific cooperation, and environmental protection.

  3. India is a Consultative Party to the Antarctic Treaty.

  4. In 2022, India enacted the Antarctic Act, reaffirming its commitment to the Antarctic Treaty.

How many of the statements given above are correct?

  • a) Only one

  • b) Only two

  • c) Only three

  • d) All four


India has been a Consultative Party to the Antarctic Treaty since 1983. In 2022, India enacted the Antarctic Act, reaffirming its commitment to the Antarctic Treaty.


3. AlphaFold3, recently seen in news is related to?

  • a) An AI model that can predict the structure and interactions of all life’s molecules

  • b) A ‘crypto virus’ designed to block user access to computer systems.

  • c) India’s first indigenous unmanned bomber aircraft

  • d) None of the above


1. India backs Palestine’s bid for full U.N. membership


India voted in favour of a draft U.N. General Assembly resolution that said Palestine is qualified in accordance with Article 4 of the Charter of the U.N. and should be admitted as full member of the United Nations and recommended that the Security Council “reconsider” the matter “favourably”.


Some Facts about India on Palestine


  • India was the first non-Arab State to recognise the Palestine Liberation Organisation as the sole and legitimate representative of the Palestinian people in 1974.


  • India was also one of the first countries to recognise the State of Palestine in 1988 and in 1996, Delhi opened its Representative Office to the Palestine Authority in Gaza, which was later shifted to Ramallah in 2003.


Palestine, in its capacity as an observer state, does not have the right to vote in the General Assembly or to put forward its candidature to U.N. organs.


2. Rakhigarhi Findings Challenge "Aryan Migration" Theory


This passage discusses a recent archaeological discovery at Rakhigarhi, a major Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan) site in Haryana, India. The findings challenge the long-held theory of a large-scale Aryan migration into India.

Here's a breakdown with headings:


  • Unearthing Rakhigarhi:

  • Location: 150 km from Delhi, near Rakhi Shahpur and Rakhi Khas villages in Haryana.

  • Significance: Largest Harappan site in India, discovered 99 years ago.


  • DNA Analysis of 4,600-Year-Old Skeleton:

  • Source: Mound 7, a burial ground at Rakhigarhi.

  • Result: Mix of Iranian and Southeast Asian hunter-gatherer ancestry.

  • No Steppe Pastoral genes (associated with Central Asians).


  • Debunking Aryan Migration Theory:

  • "Aryan" often used for Steppe Pastoralists, but some scholars prefer "Indo-Aryan."

  • Rakhigarhi DNA suggests continuity from Harappans, not large-scale migration.


3. New Dietary Guidelines for Indians (DGIs) by ICMR-NIN


Protein supplements, highly processed foods, and items containing high sugar, salt and trans fats — have all made it to the ‘restricted’, ‘cautionary intake’ or ‘eliminate list’ of the recently released revised Dietary Guidelines for Indians (DGIs)issued by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)-National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), Hyderabad.


Eat More, Eat Better:

  • DGIs recommend reducing sugar, salt, refined oil, fried foods, and processed foods.

  • Increase fruits, vegetables, pulses, whole grains, and millets.

Healthy Habits:

  • Minimize screen time and prioritize sleep (7-8 hours) for healthy weight management.

  • Avoid reusing cooking oil after frying.

  • Earthen pots are recommended for safe cooking.

Overall Wellness:

  • DGIs emphasize a balanced diet, regular physical activity, and adequate water intake.

  • Increased consumption of processed foods contributes to micronutrient deficiencies and obesity.

  • Limited access to pulses and meat can lead to essential nutrient deficiencies.


Bail - All you need to know


The term “bail” may be traced back to the old French word “Baillier”. Its true meaning is to deliver or hand over. The term “bail” is not defined in India’s Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 (CrPC).


As such, “bail” refers to the release of a person from legal custody. The law’s policy is to allow bail rather than prohibit it by the usual methods. Thus, bail is granted as a norm, while rejection is an exception, as held in the Satender Kumar Antil v. Central Bureau of Investigation (2022) (CBI) case.


The legal status of bail

Bail has obtained its legal status from the following sources:

  1. Article 21 of the Indian constitution:Article 21 gives everyone the right to life and personal liberty. It provides the fundamental right to live with human dignity and personal freedom, which entitles us to seek bail when detained by any law enforcement entity.

  2. Section 438 of Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973: Section 438 of the CrPC clearly states that anticipatory bail is only granted in case of non-bailable offences. The term bail is not defined in the CrPC. Section 2(a) only defines the terms “Bailable Offence” and “Non-Bailable Offence”. It is based on the proposal of the Law Commission of India in its 41st Report, which suggested the inclusion of an anticipatory bail provision. 

  3. Article 11 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Bail, particularly anticipatory bail, is founded on the legal concept of presumption of innocence, which states that everyone accused of a crime is presumed innocent until proven guilty. This is a fundamental value established in Article 11 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Classification of offences for bail purposes

The following offences are classified for the purpose of bail:


  1. Bailable Offence: Section 2(a) of the Code of Criminal Procedure defines bailable offences. An offence that is categorised as bailable is referred to as a bailable offence. In the event of such an offence, bail can be awarded as a matter of law under Section 436 of the CrPC when such prerequisites have been satisfied. In the case of bailable offences, the police may grant bail to the offender at the moment of arrest or detention.

  2. Non-Bailable: A non-bailable offence is one in which bail cannot be granted as a matter of right unless ordered by a competent court. In such instances, the accused may seek bail under Sections 437and Section 439 of the Criminal Procedure Code of 1973. These are serious offences, as opposed to bailable offences. In the event of non-bailable offences, the penalty is three years or more.

It should be noted that the Court’s judicial discretion governs the issue of bail for non-bailable offences.


Classification of bail

Depending on the stage of the criminal proceeding, a person may ask for one of four types of bail in India:

  1. Regular Bail: Regular bail is frequently issued to an individual who has previously been arrested and detained by police. The accused has the right to be freed from such confinement under Section 437 and Section 439 of the CrPC. So, a regular bail is simply the release of an accused from jail to ensure his attendance at the trial.

  2. Interim Bail: Interim bail is bail issued for a short period. Interim bail is granted to an accused before the hearing for regular or anticipatory bail.

  3. Anticipatory Bail: If a person suspects that he may be arrested for a non-bailable offence, he may petition for anticipatory bail. In recent years, this has become an important problem because corporate competitors and other prominent persons sometimes seek to frame their opponents with fake charges. It’s similar to obtaining advance bail under Section 438 of the CrPC. A bail under Section 438 may be bail before arrest, and an individual cannot be arrested by the police if the court has granted anticipatory bail.

  4. Statutory Bail: The remedy of statutory bail, also known as default bail, is distinct from bail obtained in the ordinary procedure under CrPC Sections 437, 438, and 439. As the name implies, statutory bail is given when the police or investigating agency fails to file its report/complaint within a certain time frame.






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