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15 February 2024 Daily Current Affairs

1. Types of Species Interactions

Mutualism

Commensalism

  • Mutualism describes the ecological interaction between two or more species where each species has a net benefit.

  • Commensalism, in biology, a relationship between two species in which one obtains benefits from the other without harming or benefiting it.

Parasitism

Competition

  • Parasitism, relationship between two species of plants or animals in which one benefits at the expense of the other, sometimes without killing the host organism.

  • Competition occurs when two organisms compete for the same limited resource. The resource may be a prey species, water, or soil nutrients. A competition symbiotic relationship limits the reproductive success of each species, meaning neither benefits.

2. Olive Ridley Turtle and Other sea turtles



Why in the news?

The Andhra Pradesh government has recently imposed a month-long ban on fishing to prevent death of Olive Ridley turtles off Kakinada coast.

About the Olive Ridley Turtle

1. The Olive ridley turtles are the smallest and most abundant of all sea turtles found in the world. 2. They are best known for their unique mass nesting called Arribada, where thousands of females come together on the same beach to lay eggs. Habitat- They are found in warm waters of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans. IUCN status- Vulnerable Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act- Schedule I


Gahirmatha beach of Odisha is largest mass nesting site for the olive ridley turtles in India. The beach is now now a part of the Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary surrounded by mangroves forest and best place in India to spot Olive Ridley Sea Turtles.


Devi river is a distributaries of Mahanadi that joins Bay of Bengal and the river mouth serves as a nesting ground for olive ridley sea turtles in Odisha during their breeding season. Rambha is another notified area in Odisha known to be a nesting site.


Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary and Hope Island in Andhra Pradesh.


Olive Ridley Map in India
Olive Ridley in India MAp


3. Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals

Why in the news?

The Fourteenth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (COP14) is being hosted by the Government of Uzbekistan, in Samarkand from 12-17 February 2024.

About Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals

Source-UNEP

Aspect

Details

Origin

It was signed in Bonn, Germany, on 23 June 1979

Description

It is also known as the Bonn Convention. This is an environmental treaty under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme.

Objective

To provide a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats.

Governance

The Conference of Parties (COP) is the decision-making organ of this convention

Is it legally binding?

Activities by CMS Parties may range from legally binding treaties (called Agreements) to less formal instruments, such as Memoranda of Understanding.

Type of appendices

Appendix I lists endangered migratory species and includes prohibitions regarding the take of these species.


Appendix II lists species that have an ‘unfavourable conservation status’  and encourages range states to draft range-wide agreements for conservation and management of these species.

Some important points

1) It is the only global and UN-based intergovernmental organisation. established exclusively for the conservation and management of terrestrial, aquatic and avian migratory species throughout their range.


2) It acknowledges the importance of conserving migratory species.

4. What do the WTO regulations regarding farm subsidies say?


The WTO regulations on farm subsidies aims to ensure fair competition and prevent trade distortion globally.a. These regulations impose limits on the types and levels of subsidies that member countries can provide to their agricultural sectors.

Levels of subsidies:

Green Box

Amber Box

Blue Box

1. It includes subsidies that do not significantly distort trade.


2. They are not specific to particular products and are generally allowed by the WTO.


3. Examples include funding for research, environmental protection, and direct income support for farmers facing difficulties like crop loss or other disasters.

1. These are the subsidies that distort international trade by promoting excessive production.


2. Examples include, input subsidies such as subsidies on seeds, fertilisers, Minimum Support Price (MSP) etc.


3. WTO limits this subsidy by capping it at 5% for developed countries & 10% for developing countries.

1. These subsidies are similar to amber box subsidies, but they aim to restrict production.


2. Currently, only a few countries like Norway and Iceland utilize these subsidies.


3. The WTO does not impose any limits on these subsidies.


Thanks for reading 15 February 2024 Daily Current Affairs

15 February 2024 Daily Current Affairs

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